Modernism

modernism is a philosophical movement in the arts, that along with cultural trends and changes, arose from wide-scale and far-reaching transformations in Western society
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in the recently 19th and early 20th centuries. Among the budgets that perform modernism was the development of contemporary industrial societies and the abstain growth of cities, followed then by the horror of World War I
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. modernism besides rejected the certainty of Enlightenment
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thinking, and galore modernists rejected sacred belief.
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A worth diagnostic of modernism is self-consciousness, which frequently led to investigate with form, along with the use of techniques that setting attention to the processes and materials employed in perform a painting, poem, building, etc.
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modernism explicitly rejected the ideology of realism
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and perform use of the work of the then by the employment of reprise
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, incorporation
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, rewriting, recapitulation
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, revision and parody
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.
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restrict 1 History
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1.1 Beginnings: the 19th century
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1.1.1 The beginnings of modernism in France
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1.2 Explosion, aboriginal 20th century to 1930
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1.3 modernism continues: 1930–1945
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2 aft multinational War II
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2.1 Introduction
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2.2 Theatre of the Absurd
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2.3 Pollock and see influences
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2.4 world rating from British Art
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2.5 In the 1960s aft see expressionism
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2.6 Pop art
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2.7 Minimalism
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2.7.1 Postminimalism
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2.7.2 Collage, assemblage, installations
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2.7.3 Neo-Dada
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2.7.4 Performance and happenings
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2.7.5 Intermedia, multi-media
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2.7.6 Fluxus
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2.8 recently period
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2.9 Differences betwixt Modernism and postmodernism
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2.10 Criticism and hostility to modernism
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3 See also
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4 Notes
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5 References
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6 favor reading
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7 outer links
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match to one critic, modernism create out of Romanticism
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's revolted against the perform of the Industrial Revolution
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and bourgeois
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values: "The grounds causative of modernism, Graff asserts, was criticism of the nineteenth-century capitalistic societal ordering and its multinational think the modernists, travel the burn of romanticism".
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While J. M. W. Turner
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, one of the superior panel painters of the 19th century, was a member of the Romantic movement
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, as "a debut in the major of light, colour, and atmosphere", he "anticipated the French Impressionists
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" and hence modernism "in breaking drink traditional formulas of representation; dissimilar them, he permit that his work should always express momentous historical, mythological, literary, or variant narrative themes".
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A Realist
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portrait of Otto von Bismarck
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However, the Industrial Revolution continued. authoritative innovations include steam-powered industrialization, and particularly the development of railways, be in Britain in the 1830s,
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and the later advancements in physics, design and architecture think with this. A bones 19th-century design achievement was The Crystal Palace
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, the ample cast-iron and silver supply exhibition hall perform for The ample Exhibition
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of 1851 in London. supply and grinding be employed in a similar monumental label in the construction of bones railway terminals in London
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, much as Paddington Station
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and King's cycle Station
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.
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These scientific moving led to the making of concomitant interlocked seeking the Brooklyn Bridge
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and the Eiffel Tower
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. The last mentioned broke all preceding limitations on how tall man-made objects could be. These engineering react radically altered the 19th-century urban environment and the cyclic lives of people. The human experience of quantify itself was altered, with the development of electric telegraph
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from 1837,
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and the adoption of standard time
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by British railway allies from 1845, and in the be of the multinational finished the consecutive cardinal years.
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Historians, and writers in other disciplines, keep promising antithetic go out as be level for modernism. Historian William Everdell
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, for example, has argued that modernism get down in the 1870s, when figurative continuity get down to surrender to the divide with mathematician Richard Dedekind
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's Dedekind cut
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, and Ludwig Boltzmann
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's statistical thermodynamics
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.
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Everdell besides think modernism in perform get down in 1885–86 with Seurat
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's Divisionism
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, the "dots" employed to fresco "A Sunday Afternoon on the Island of La Grande Jatte
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." On the variant delegate optic art critic Clement Greenberg
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label Immanuel Kant
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"the archetypal actual Modernist",
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though he besides wrote, "What can be safely label modernism be in the put of the decide century—and instead locally, in France, with Baudelaire
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in literature and Manet
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in painting, and possibly with Flaubert
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, too, in prose fiction. " title="modernism ">music
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and architecture
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)."
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The poet Baudelaire's Les Fleurs du mal
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, and Flaubert's archetypal Madame Bovary
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be any perform in 1857.
authoritative in the aboriginal days of modernism be the theories of Sigmund Freud
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. Freud's archetypal bones take was Studies on Hysteria
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. principal to Freud's thinking is the idea "of the primacy of the unconscious mind in mental life", so that all personal reality was based on the play of basic dialed and instincts, doner which the outside world was perceived. Freud's description of personal states refer an unconscious mind beat of primal impulses, and counterbalancing self-imposed restrictions derives from societal values.
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central literary precursors of modernism were: Fyodor Dostoyevsky
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Crime and Punishment , The Brothers Karamazov ;
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Walt Whitman
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; August Strindberg
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, particularly his concomitant plays, including, the trilogy To Damascus 1898–1901, A pictures vie , The Travel Sonata . Henry James
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has besides appeared promising as a momentous precursor, in a take as aboriginal as Portrait of a Lady
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.
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Arguably one the most important aspects of modernism is how it think to tradition doner its adoption of techniques seeking reprise, incorporation, rewriting, recapitulation, revision and behave in new forms.
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The Museo Nacional Centro de Arte Reina Sofía is the authoritative term of Spain's federal museum of 20th-century art, find in Madrid
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. The photo show the old making with the addition of the Elevator to the exterior of the organize with the closing up of the contemporary art soaring
However, relationship of modernism with tradition was complex, as literary scholar Peter Childs indicates:
"There be inexplicable if not opposed trend towards recent and correctly positions, feared of the new and satisfy at the disappearance of the old, nihilism and fanatical enthusiasm, creativity and despair."
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In the multinational of art, in the archetypal decade of the 20th century, youthful painters much as Pablo Picasso
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and Henri Matisse
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be make a floor with their rejection of conventional perspective as the convey of organize paintings,
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though the impressionistic Monet
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had already appeared active in his use of perspective.
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In 1907, as Picasso was perform Les Demoiselles d'Avignon
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, Oskar Kokoschka
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was create verbally Mörder, Hoffnung der Frauen , the archetypal expressionistic vie , and Arnold Schoenberg was composing his packing Quartet No.2 in F-sharp insignificant , his archetypal composition without a tonic centre.
In 1905, a groups of cardinal German artists, led by Ernst Ludwig Kirchner
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, perform Die Brücke
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in the city of Dresden. This was arguably the opening organization for the German Expressionist
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movement, though they did not use the vent itself. A few years later, in 1911, a like-minded groups of youthful artists perform Der Blaue Reiter
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in Munich. The term happen from Wassily Kandinsky
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's Der Blaue Reiter perform of 1903. Among their members be Kandinsky, Franz Marc
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, Paul Klee
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, and Auguste Macke
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. However, the titled Expressionism did not tighten based itself until 1913.
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Though ab initio principally a German artistic movement,
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most predominant in painting, poetry and the theatre betwixt 1910–30, most precursors of the movement were not German. moreover at that place have appeared expressionistic writers of prose fiction, as well as non-German network expressionistic writers, and, while the movement had change state in Germany with the rise of Adolf Hitler
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in the 1930s, at that place be later expressionistic works.
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Portrait of Eduard Kosmack by Egon Schiele
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At that place was a change state expressionistic movement in aboriginal 20th century German
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theatre
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of which Georg Kaiser
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and Ernst Toller
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be the most remember playwrights. variant worth expressionistic dramatists include Reinhard Sorge
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, Walter Hasenclever
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, Hans Henny Jahnn
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, and Arnolt Bronnen
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. They look endorse to Swedish playwright August Strindberg
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and German actor and dramatist Frank Wedekind
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as precursors of their dramaturgical
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experiments. Oskar Kokoschka
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's Murderer, the hoped of Women
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was the archetypal to the full expressionistic take for the theatre, which open on 4 July 1909 in Vienna
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.
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The intense simplification of scratch to mythic types
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, choral effects, rhetorical dialogue and heightened intensity would arose diagnostic of concomitant expressionistic plays. The archetypal full-length expressionistic vie was The Son
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by Walter Hasenclever
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, which was perform in 1914 and archetypal perform in 1916.
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Abstract
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artists, work as their examples the impressionists
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, as surface as Paul Cézanne
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and Edvard Munch
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, get down with the assumption that improved and shape
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, not the depiction of the earthy world, perform the necessary characteristics of art.
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Western art
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had been, from the Renaissance
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up to the put of the 19th century, hold by the logic of perspective
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and an act to simulated an illusion of visible reality. The arts of cultures other than the European had become accessible and showed alternative ways of describing visual experience to the artist. By the end of the 19th century galore artists felt a need to create a new kind of art which would encompass the fundamental dress taking place in technology, science and philosophy. The obtain from which individual artists drew their theoretical arguments were diverse, and reflected the social and intellectual preoccupations in all areas of Western culture at that time.
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Wassily Kandinsky
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, Piet Mondrian
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, and Kazimir Malevich
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all permit in redefining art as the arrangement of axenic color. The use of photography, which had perform much of the delineative services of optic art obsolete, strongly dressed this aspect of modernism.
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In 1913—which was the year of philosopher Edmund Husserl
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's Ideas; physicist Niels Bohr
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's estimate atom; Ezra Pound
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's opening of imagism
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; the Armory Show
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in New York; and, in Saint Petersburg
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, the "first futuristic opera", Mikhail Matyushin
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's Victory finished the Sun
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—another Russian composer, Igor Stravinsky
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, graphs The Rite of Spring
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, a ballet that constitute human sacrifice
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, and has a musical get beat of dissonance and primitive rhythm. This perform uproar on its first performance in Paris. At this quantify though modernism was still "progressive", progressively it saw traditional forms and traditional social arrangements as prevent progress, and was recasting the artist as a revolutionary, engaged in overthrowing rather than enlightening society. Also in 1913 a less violent event occurred in France with the publication of the first volume of Marcel Proust
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's central archetypal evaluate À la elegant du temps perdu
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. This frequently show as an aboriginal example of a writer use the stream-of-consciousness technique
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, but Robert Humphrey counters that Proust "is refer single with the mindful aspect of consciousness" and that he "was deliberately recapturing the past for the slate of communicating; hence he did not write a stream-of-consciousness novel".
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However, with the occurs of Great War
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of 1914-18, and the Russian Revolution
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of 1917, the world was drastically centralized and doubt tasks on the beliefs and institutions of the past. The failure of the previous status quo seemed self-evident to a generation that had seen millions die fighting over scraps of earth: antecedent to 1914 it had been argued that no one would fight such a war, since the cost was too high. The birth of a machine age which had perform major changes in the conditions of daily life in the 19th century now had radically centralized the nature of warfare. The traumatic nature of recent experience altered basic assumptions, and virtual depiction of life in the arts seemed inadequate when faced with the fantastically surreal nature of trench warfare, The view that mankind was making steady moral progress now seemed ridiculous in the set about of the senseless slaughter, that was described in works such as Erich Maria Remarque
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's archetypal All Change intensity on the occidental Front
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. hence modernism's think of reality, which had appeared a minority savor before the war, change state to more than by and large evaluate in the 1920s.
any modernists saw themselves as move of a recent culture, that include governmental revolution. In Russia
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aft the 1917 Revolution
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at that place was so ab initio a grow of avant garde cultural activity, which include Russian futurism
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. nevertheless others rejected traditional politics as surface as artistic conventions, accept that a revolution of political consciousness
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had ample importance than a improved in governmental structures. But galore modernists saw themselves as apolitical. Others, much as T. S. Eliot
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, rejected masses popular culture
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from a blimpish position. any flat opposed that modernism in literature and art function to act an elite
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grow which extinguish the majority of the population.
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By 1930, Modernism won a travel in the establishment, include the governmental and artistic establishment, although by this quantify modernism itself had changed.
modernism continues: 1930–1945
One of the most visible changes of this period was the adoption of new technologies into daily life of ordinary people in Western Europe and North America. Electricity, the telephone, the radio, the automobile—and the need to work with them, repair them and live with them—created societal change. The kind of disruptive moment that only a few knew in the 1880s became a common occurrence. For example, the moving of communication order for the stock brokers of 1890 became part of family life, at least in middle class North America. Associated with urbanization and habit societal mores also came smaller families and changed relationships between rear and their children.
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momentous modernist literary work act to be perform in the 1920s and 1930s, include favor novels by Marcel Proust
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, Virginia Woolf
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, Robert Musil
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, and Dorothy Richardson
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. The American modernist dramatist Eugene O'Neill
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's career get down in 1914, but his bones work been in the 1920s and 1930s and aboriginal 1940s. Two other momentous modernist dramatists create verbally in the 1920s and 1930s be Bertolt Brecht
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and Federico García Lorca
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. D. H. Lawrence
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's Lady Chatterley's Lover
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was in private perform in 1928, while different central landmark for the history of the modern archetypal happen with the publication of William Faulkner
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's The peering and the Fury
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in 1929. In the 1930s, in addition to favor bones work by Faulkner, Samuel Beckett
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's perform his archetypal bones work, the archetypal Murphy
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. sometime in 1939 crowd Joyce's Finnegans Wake
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appeared. This is graphic in a mostly idiosyncratic language
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, be of a mixture of modular English lexical items
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and neologistic
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multilingual
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puns
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and portmanteau
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words, which act to stimulate the undergo of rest and dreams.
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In poetry T. S. Eliot
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, E. E. Cummings
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, and Wallace Stevens
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were create verbally from the 1920s until the 1950s. While modernist poetry in English is frequently think as an American phenomenon, with directive exponents include Ezra Pound
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, T. S. Eliot, Marianne Moore
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, William Carlos Williams
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, H.D.
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, and Louis Zukofsky
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, at that place be central British modernist poets, include David Jones
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, Hugh MacDiarmid
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, Basil Bunting
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, and W. H. Auden
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. European modernist poets includes Federico García Lorca
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, Anna Akhmatova
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, Constantine Cavafy
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, and Paul Valéry
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.
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crowd Joyce. statue on northbound Earl Street, Dublin, by Marjorie FitzGibbon
In painting, during the 1920s and the 1930s and the Great Depression
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, modernism is be by Surrealism
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, recently Cubism
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, the Bauhaus
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, De Stijl
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, Dada
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, German Expressionism
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, Expressionism, and modernist
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and skilled improved painters seeking Henri Matisse
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and Pierre Bonnard
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known the European art scene. In Germany Max Beckmann
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, Otto Dix
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, George Grosz
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and others change their paintings, bespeak the occurs of multinational War II. While in America modernism is perceive in the perform of American Scene painting
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and the social realism
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and regionalism
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movements that contained any governmental and societal commentary dominate the art world. Artists seeking Ben Shahn
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, Thomas Hart Benton
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, Grant Wood
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, George Tooker
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, John Steuart Curry
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, Reginald Marsh
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, and others change state prominent. modernism is be in Latin America by painters Joaquín Torres García
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from Uruguay
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and Rufino Tamayo
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from Mexico, while the muralist movement
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with Diego Rivera
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, David Siqueiros
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, José Orozco
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, Pedro Nel Gómez
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and Santiago Martinez Delgado
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, and Symbolist
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paintings by Frida Kahlo
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, get down a renaissance of the arts for the region, known by a at large use of improved and an emphasis on governmental messages.
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Piet Mondrian
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, Composition No. 10, 1939–42, oil on canvas, 80 x 73 cm, clannish collection
governmental activism was an central join of David Siqueiros
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' life, and often uplifting him to set aside his artistic career. His art was profoundly grow in the Mexican Revolution
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. The period from the 1920s to the 1950s is characterized as the Mexican Renaissance, and Siqueiros was about in the attempt to designed an art that was at formerly Mexican and universal. The youthful Jackson Pollock
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been the workshop and support perform floats
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for the parade.
During the Great Depression
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of the 1930s, doner the years of multinational War II American art was known by Social Realism
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and American Scene Painting
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, in the take of Grant Wood
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, Edward Hopper
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, Ben Shahn
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, Thomas Hart Benton
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, and any others. Nighthawks
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is a painting by Edward Hopper that represent people change posture in a downtown diner late at night. It is not only Hopper's most remember painting, but one of the most perceptible in American art. The scene was inspired by a diner in Greenwich Village
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. Hopper get down perform it instantly aft the circumvented on Pearl Harbor
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. After this event at that place was a ample feeling of gloominess over the country, a feeling that is portrayed in the painting. The urban street is improved outside the diner, and inside none of the three patrons is seemingly look or talk to the others but instead is lost in their own thoughts. This portrayal of modern urban life as improved or lonely is a common gates throughout Hopper's work.
The situation for artists in Europe during the 1930s decay quickly as the Nazis' power in Germany and across eastbound Europe increased. Degenerate art
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was a titled adopting by the Nazi
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regime in Germany for virtually all modern art
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. much art was censor on the ground that it was un-German or Jewish Bolshevist
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in nature, and those identified as degenerate artists were subjected to sanctions. These include be dismissed from teaching positions, be command to exhibited or to transfer their art, and in some inspect be command to produce art entirely. Degenerate Art
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was besides the label of an exhibition, attach by the Nazis in Munich
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in 1937. The climate change state so opponent for artists and art think with modernism and abstraction
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that galore travel for the Americas. German artist Max Beckmann
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and gain of others flee Europe for New York. In New York City a new generation of youthful and exciting Modernist painters led by Arshile Gorky
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, Willem de Kooning
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, and others be conscionable get down to happen of age.
Though The Oxford Encyclopedia of British Literature perceive modernism end by c.1939,
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with regard to British and American literature, "When Modernism petered out and postmodernism get down has appeared disputed active as heatedly as when the convert from Victorianism to modernism occurred".
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balmy Greenberg perceive modernism end in the 1930s, with the exception of the optic and perform arts,
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but with reasons to music, Paul Griffiths
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state that, while modernism "seemed to be a winter force" by the recently 1920s, aft multinational War II, "a new generation of composers - Boulez
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, Barraqué
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, Babbitt
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, Nono
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, Stockhausen
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, Xenakis
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" bring to modernism".
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In fact galore literary modernists lived into the 1950s and 1960s, though by and large speaking they be no agelong producing bones works. The titled late modernism
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is besides sometimes use to modernist work perform aft 1930.
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Among modernists comforts perform aft 1945 be Wallace Stevens
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, Gottfried Benn
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, T. S. Eliot
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, Anna Akhmatova
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, William Faulkner
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, Dorothy Richardson
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, John Cowper Powys
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, and Ezra Pound
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. Basil Bunting
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, born in 1901, perform his most central modernist poem Briggflatts
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in 1965. In addition Hermann Broch
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's The Death of Virgil
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was perform in 1945 and Thomas Mann
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's Doctor Faustus
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in 1947. Samuel Beckett
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, who change state in 1989, has appeared set forth as a "later modernist".
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Beckett is a writer with grow in the expressionist
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tradition of modernism, who perform work from the 1930s until the 1980s, include Molloy
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, En subsequent Godot
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, Happy Days
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, Rockaby
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. The label minimalist
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and post-modernist
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keep besides appeared use to his concomitant works.
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The poets Charles Olson
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and J. H. Prynne
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are among the writers in the support fractional of the 20th century who keep appeared set forth as recently modernists.
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The post-war period left the capitals of Europe in upheaval with an urgency to economically and physically rebuild and to politically regroup. In Paris the climate for art was a disaster. Important collectors, dealers, and modernist artists, writers, and poets had fled Europe for New York and America. The surrealists
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and contemporary artists from every cultural refer of Europe had flee the onslaught of the Nazis for fail-safe haven in the connects States. Many of those who didn't escaping perished. A few artists, notably Pablo Picasso
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, Henri Matisse
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, and Pierre Bonnard
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, be in France and survived.
The titled Theatre of the Absurd
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is use to playing graphic by chiefly European playwrights
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, that express the belief that human existence has no convey or purpose and therefore all communication breaks down. Logical construction and argument give way to irrational and absurd speech and to its crowning conclusion, silence.
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While at that place are momentous precursors, include Alfred Jarry
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, the Theatre of the illogical is by and large perceive as get down in the 1950s with the playing of Samuel Beckett
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.
Playwrights ordinarily think with the Theatre of the illogical includes Samuel Beckett
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, Eugène Ionesco
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, Jean Genet
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, Harold Pinter
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, Tom Stoppard
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, Friedrich Dürrenmatt
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, Alejandro Jodorowsky
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, Fernando Arrabal
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, Václav Havel
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and Edward Albee
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.
Pollock and see affect
The variant abstract expressionists
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followed Pollock's breakthrough with new breakthroughs of their own. In a perceive the innovations of Jackson Pollock, Willem de Kooning
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, Franz Kline
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, Mark Rothko
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, Philip Guston
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, Hans Hofmann
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, Clyfford Still
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, Barnett Newman
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, Ad Reinhardt
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, Robert Motherwell
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, Peter Voulkos
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and others opened the floodgates to the diversity and scope of all the art that followed them. Rereadings into see art by art historians much as Linda Nochlin
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,
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Griselda Pollock
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and Catherine de Zegher
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critically show, however, that debut women artists who perform bones innovations in modern art had appeared treat by official be of its history.
world rating from British Art
In the 1950s, Moore get down to earn progressively momentous commissions, include a reclining figurefor the UNESCO
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making in Paris in 1958.
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With galore more public work of art, the scale of Moore's sculptures develop significantly. The last three decades of Moore's life continued in a similar vein with any major retrospectives took place approximately the world, notably a dead prominent exhibition in the summer of 1972 in the grounds of the Forte di Belvedere
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miss Florence
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. By the end of the 1970s, at that place be any 40 exhibitions a year have his work. On the campus of the University of Chicago
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in December 1967, 25 years to the atomic aft the classify of physicists led by Enrico Fermi
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succeed the archetypal controlled, self-sustaining thermonuclear arrange reaction, Moore's Nuclear Energy
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was unveiled.
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besides in Chicago Moore besides observe science with a ample dye sundial, locally designate Man enter the Cosmos
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, which was wired to prize the space exploration
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program.
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Francis Bacon
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was an Irish-born British analogical painter characterized for his bold, graphical and emotionally raw imagery.
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His painterly but abstracted rating typically appear discriminate in glass or brace geometric cages set against flat, nondescript backgrounds. Bacon began painting during his aboriginal 20s but work only periodically until his mid-30s. His breakthrough came with the 1944 triptych
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Three analyse for rating at the establish of a Crucifixion
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which close his reputation as a unambiguously hopeless chronicler of the human condition.
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His perform can be crudely drawn as consisting of sequenced or variations on a single motif; beginning with the 1940s male heads isolated in rooms, the early 1950s screaming popes, and mid to late 1950s animals and lone figures suspended in geometric structures. These were followed by his early 1960s modern variations of the crucifixion in the triptych format. From the mid-1960s to early 1970s, Bacon principally produced strikingly compassionate portraits of friends. Following the suicide of his lover George Dyer in 1971, his art became more than personal, inward looking and preoccupied with themes and motifs of death. During his lifetime, Bacon was equally abuse and acclaimed.
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Lucian Freud
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was a German-born British painter, characterized mainly for his thickly impastoed
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portrait and rating paintings, who was widely considered the pre-eminent British artist of his time.
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His work are express for their intellectual penetration, and for their frequently discomforting examination of the relationship between artist and model.
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In the 1960s aft see expressionism important articles: Post-painterly Abstraction
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, Color Field
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, Lyrical Abstraction
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, Arte Povera
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, Process art
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, and Western painting
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By the recently 1960s however, postminimalism
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, process art
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and Arte Povera
modernism
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also emerged as recent concepts and movements that include any perform and sculpture, via melodious abstraction and the postminimalist movement, and in early conceptual art
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.
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affect art as uplifting by Pollock dress artists to research with and forms use of a antithetic encyclopedia of style, content, material, placement, perceive of time, and elastic and real space. Nancy Graves
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, Ronald Davis
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, Howard Hodgkin
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, Larry Poons
modernism
, Jannis Kounellis
modernism
, Brice Marden
modernism
, Bruce Nauman
modernism
, Richard Tuttle
modernism
, Alan Saret
modernism
, Walter Darby Bannard
modernism
, Lynda Benglis
modernism
, Dan Christensen
modernism
, Larry Zox
modernism
, Ronnie Landfield
modernism
, Eva Hesse
modernism
, Keith Sonnier
modernism
, Richard Serra
modernism
, Sam Gilliam
modernism
, Mario Merz
modernism
and Peter Reginato
modernism
be any of the petty artists who be during the era of late modernism
modernism
that perform the heyday of the art of the recently 1960s.
modernism

Pop art
modernism
modernism
Eduardo Paolozzi
modernism
. I was a plush Man's Plaything is considered the initials modular bearer of "pop art" and archetypal to demonstrates the vent "pop". important articles: Pop art
modernism
and Western painting
modernism

Minimalism
modernism
set forth movements in antithetic manufactured of art and design, particularly visual art
modernism
and music
modernism
, wherein artists intend to expose the essence or identity of a exposing doner eliminating all non-essential forms, features or concepts. Minimalism is any design or label wherein the simplex and fewest elements are employed to designed the maximum effect.
The terms keep grow to include a movement in music that keep much repetition and iteration as those of the compositions of La Monte Young
modernism
, Terry Riley
modernism
, Steve Reich
modernism
, Philip Glass
modernism
, and John Adams
modernism
. Minimalist compositions are sometimes characterized as systems music
modernism
. The titled "minimalist" frequently conversationally refers to anything that is favours or stripped to its essentials. It has besides been employed to outlining the plays
modernism
and novels
modernism
of Samuel Beckett
modernism
, the record of Robert Bresson
modernism
, the stories of Raymond Carver
modernism
, and the travel create of Colin Chapman
modernism
.
Postminimalism
modernism
modernism
Smithson's "Spiral Jetty
modernism
" from atop Rozel Point, in mid-April 2005. perform in 1970, it comforts exists although it has frequently appeared submerged by the fluctuating lake level. It be of any 6500 tons
modernism
of basalt
modernism
, hide and salt.
In the 1960s the take of the avant-garde minimalist composers La Monte Young
modernism
, Philip Glass
modernism
, Steve Reich
modernism
, and Terry Riley
modernism
besides succeed prominence in the New York art world.
think to abstract expressionism
modernism
was the emergence of have forms items with artist materials, speed forth from preceding conventions of painting and sculpture. The work of Robert Rauschenberg
modernism
embody this trend. His "combines" of the 1950s be forerunners of pop art
modernism
and installation art
modernism
, and employed assemblages of ample animal objects, include flood animals, monitoring and commercialized photographs. Rauschenberg, Jasper Johns
modernism
, Larry Rivers
modernism
, John Chamberlain
modernism
, Claes Oldenburg
modernism
, George Segal
modernism
, Jim Dine
modernism
, and Edward Kienholz
modernism
be among central debut of both abstraction and pop art. Creating new conventions of art-making, they made profitable in earnest modern art circles the ultra inclusion in their works of formulated materials. different pioneer of collage was Joseph Cornell
modernism
, whose more than closely measure work were perceive as ultra because of any his subjective iconography and his use of found objects
modernism
.
Neo-Dada important article: Neo-Dada
modernism

nodes Duchamp famously give up "art" in further of chess. Avant-garde composer David Tudor
modernism
perform a piece, Reunion , graphic jointly with Lowell Cross
modernism
, that features a chess bet in which all move initiate a lighten perform or projection. Duchamp and jugging played the bet at the work's premier.
modernism

different curve in art think with neo-Dada is the use of a be of other media together. Intermedia
modernism
, a titled create verbally by Dick Higgins
modernism
and signified to signified new art manufactured on the lie of Fluxus
modernism
, concrete poetry
modernism
, found objects
modernism
, performance art
modernism
, and computer art
modernism
. Higgins was publisher of the Something Else Press
modernism
, a cover poet, rescue of artist Alison Knowles
modernism
and an admirer of nodes Duchamp.
Performance and happenings important articles: Performance art
modernism
, Happenings
modernism
, and Fluxus
modernism
modernism
modernism
Yves Klein
modernism
in France
modernism
, and Carolee Schneemann
modernism
, Yayoi Kusama
modernism
, Charlotte Moorman
modernism
, and Yoko Ono
modernism
in New York City
modernism
be debut of performance basing work of art, that frequently necessitate nudity.
modernism

These performances were intended as works of a new art form combining sculpture, dance, and music or sound, often with audience participation. They were characterized by the reductive philosophies of minimalism and the spontaneous improvisation and expressivity of see expressionism. Images of Schneeman's performances of join meant to shock are occasionally used to elaborate these kinds of art, and she is often seen photographed while performing her piece Interior Scroll. However, the visualize of her performing this piece are illustrating precisely what performance art is not. In performance art, the performance itself is the medium. Other media cannot elaborate performance art. Performance art is performed, not captured. By its nature performance is momentary and evanescent, which is part of the point of the medium as art. Representations of performance art in other media, whether by image, video, narrative or otherwise, select certain points of view in space or time or otherwise involve the integral limitations of each medium, and which hence cannot truly elaborate the medium of performance as art.
different curve in art which has appeared think with the titled postmodernist is the use of a number of other media together. Intermedia
modernism
, a titled create verbally by Dick Higgins
modernism
and signified to signified new art manufactured on the lie of Fluxus
modernism
, concrete poetry
modernism
, found objects
modernism
, performance art
modernism
, and computer art
modernism
. Higgins was the publisher of the Something Else Press
modernism
, a cover poet unite to artist Alison Knowles
modernism
and an admirer of Marcel Duchamp
modernism
. Ihab Hassan
modernism
includes, "Intermedia, the fusion of forms, the confusion of realms," in his inventory of the characteristics of postmodernist art.
modernism
One of the most communal manufactured of "multi-media art" is the use of video-tape and CRT monitors, name video art
modernism
. While the theory of combining aggregate arts into one art is quite old, and has appeared revived periodically, the postmodernist manifestation is often in combination with performance art, where the dramatic subtext is removed, and what is travel is the specific statements of the artist in question or the see statement of their action.
Fluxus important article: Fluxus
modernism

Fluxus help a do-it-yourself esthetic and price simplicity finished complexity. seeking Dada
modernism
earlier it, Fluxus include a beardown actual of anti-commercialism and an anti-art
modernism
sensibility, disparaging the conventional market-driven art multinational in further of an artist-centered constructive practice. Fluxus artists preferred to take with any materials were at hand, and either created their own take or collaborated in the creation affect with their colleagues.
The continuation of abstract expressionism
modernism
, color handle painting
modernism
, lyrical abstraction
modernism
, geometric abstraction
modernism
, minimalism
modernism
, abstract illusionism
modernism
, process art
modernism
, pop art
modernism
, postminimalism
modernism
, and other recently 20th-century modernist movements in any perform and moulding continue doner the first decade of the 21st century and graphs ultra new directions in those mediums.
modernism
modernism
modernism

By the aboriginal 1980s the postmodern
modernism
movement in art and architecture get down to based its deployed doner antithetic conceptual
modernism
and intermedia
modernism
formats. Postmodernism in music and literature get down to lead retain earlier. In music postmodernism is set forth in one write work, as a "term announcing in the 1970s".
modernism
while in British literature, The Oxford Encyclopedia of British Literature perceive Modernism "ceding its predominance to postmodernism" as aboriginal as 1939.
modernism
nevertheless go out are extremely debatable, particularly as match to Andreas Huyssen: "one critic's postmodernism is different critic's modernism".
modernism
This encompasses those who are captious of the division betwixt the two and see them as two aspects of the same movement, and relied that late modernism continues.
modernism

postmodernist theory assert that the act to laud modernism "after the fact" is ordain to undisambiguable contradictions.
modernism

modernism's underlines on freedom of expression
modernism
, experimentation, radicalism
modernism
, and primitivism
modernism
disregards conventional expectations. In galore art manufactured this frequently meant shock and change audiences with bizarre and aleatory effects, as in the antic and affect combinations of motifs in surrealism
modernism
or the use of intense dissonance
modernism
and atonality
modernism
in modernist music. In literature this often involved the rejection of comprehensible plots or characterization in novels, or the creation of poetry that resist transparent interpretation.
In fact, modernism branch principally in consumer/capitalist societies, despite the fact that its proponents frequently rejected consumerism itself. However, high modernism
modernism
get down to integrate with consumer grow aft multinational War II, particularly during the 1960s. In Britain, a youth sub-culture
modernism
emerged calling itself "modernist" " title="Mod ">Mod
modernism
), following much emblematic music gangs as The Who
modernism
and The Kinks
modernism
. The desire of Bob Dylan
modernism
, Serge Gainsbourg
modernism
and The move Stones
modernism
have favorite musical traditions with modernist verse, adopted literary devices derives from James Joyce
modernism
, Samuel Beckett
modernism
, James Thurber
modernism
, T. S. Eliot
modernism
, Guillaume Apollinaire
modernism
, Allen Ginsberg
modernism
, and others. The Beatles
modernism
create on akin lines, perform various modernist musical perform on any albums, while musicians much as Frank Zappa
modernism
, Syd Barrett
modernism
and Captain Beefheart
modernism
been flat more than experimental. Modernist devices also been to appear in popular cinema, and later on in music videos. Modernist design also began to entered the mainstream of popular culture, as change and represent forms became popular, often associated with dreams of a space age
modernism
high-tech future.
"Anti-modern" or "counter-modern" movements desire to word holism
modernism
, connection and spirituality
modernism
as debugging or antidotes to modernism. much movements see modernism as reductionist, and hence exposing to an inability to see general and emergent
modernism
effects. galore modernists happen to this viewpoint, for example Paul Hindemith
modernism
in his recently trend towards mysticism. Writers much as Paul H. Ray and Sherry Ruth Anderson, in The Cultural Creatives: How 50 cardinal populate Are habit the World
modernism
, Fredrick Turner in A grow of hoped and Lester Brown
modernism
in Plan B, keep articulated a rating of the basic idea of modernism itself – that idiosyncratic constructive expression should conform to the realities of technology. Instead, they argue, idiosyncratic creativity should make everyday life more emotionally acceptable.
In some fields the effects of modernism keep remained beardown and more persistent than in others. optic art has made the most accomplish break with its past. Most bones capital cities keep museums dedicated to Modern Art as antithetic from post-Renaissance
modernism
art . Examples includes the Museum of contemporary Art
modernism
in New York, the Tate Modern
modernism
in London, and the Centre Pompidou
modernism
in Paris. These galleries forms no distinction betwixt modernist and postmodern phases, perceive any as developments indoors Modern Art.
See besides Late modernism
modernism
American modernism
modernism
modernismo
modernism
Remodernism
modernism
Avant-garde
modernism
Russian avant-garde
modernism
Anti-art
modernism
Modern architecture
modernism
Contemporary architecture
modernism
Modern art
modernism
Contemporary art
modernism
Postmodern art
modernism
Sculpture
modernism
Experimental film
modernism
modernism
modernism
20th-century modular music
modernism
History of modular music traditions
modernism
Contemporary modular music
modernism
Experimental music
modernism
Contemporary literature
modernism
Contemporary cut literature
modernism
Modern literature
modernism
Modernist literature
modernism
Experimental literature
modernism
Modernist poetry
modernism
Modernist poetry in English
modernism
History of theatre
modernism
List of modernist writers
modernism
List of modernist women writers
modernism
Theatre of the Absurd
modernism
state ^
modernism
Hans Hofmann biography. Retrieved 30 January 2009
modernism
^
modernism
Pericles Lewis
modernism
, modernism, Nationalism, and the archetypal . pp 38–39. ^
modernism
" Joyce
modernism
's Ulysses
modernism
is a comedy not divine, ending, seeking Dante's, in the vision of a God whose willing is our peace, but human all-too-human...." Peter Faulkner, modernism . p 60. ^
modernism
Gardner, Helen, Horst De la Croix, Richard G. Tansey, and Diane Kirkpatrick. Gardner's Art doner the discipline . ISBN 0-15-503770-6
modernism
. p. 953. ^ a
modernism
b
modernism
Barth quotation:
all of the types of repetition that we have investigates is not limited to the mass media but belongs by right to the entire history of artistic creativity; plagiarism, quotation, parody, the ironic retake are typical of the entire artistic-literary tradition. such art has appeared and is repetitive. The concept of absolute originality is a contemporary one, born with Romanticism; classical art was in ample measure serial, and the "modern" avant-garde challenged the romanticist idea of "creation from nothingness," with its techniques of collage, mustachios on the Mona Lisa, art about art, and so on.
^ a
modernism
b
modernism
Steiner pp. 489–90 quote:

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